You need to apply for a transit visa if your nationality is on the list of airport transit visa countries.
You have a transit visa-required nationality. However you have a valid visa for an EU/EEA country, Canada, Japan or the United States of America? You then are exempt of this transit visa-requirement.
A transit visa only allows you to change planes to a destination outside the Schengen Area. You are not allowed to leave the international transit area of the airport. Not even to collect your luggage. You therefore do not have access to the Schengen Area.
Are you travelling from the airport by plane, car, train or bus to another Schengen country? Or are you staying in the Netherlands for a few days? You then need a Schengen visa (type C visa).
You apply for a transit visa at the Dutch representation abroad. You cannot apply for this visa at the IND.