A transit visa only allows you to change planes to a destination outside of the Schengen Area. You are not allowed to leave the international transit area of the airport. Not even to collect your luggage. You therefore do not have access to the Schengen Area.
You apply for a transit visa at the Dutch representation abroad. You cannot apply for this visa at the IND.
Please check the website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for more information on whether you have to apply for a transit visa or not and how to apply.
Are you travelling from the airport by plane, car, train or bus to another Schengen country? Or are you staying in the Netherlands for a few days? Then you might need a Schengen visa (type C visa).